All of the cutting, bending, bud, shoot and leaf removal processes applied to the above-ground organs of the trees are called pruning in order for the fruit trees to form a smooth and strong crown, to give good and abundant products for a long time, and to make the trees that have fallen out of yield productive again.
In trees that are not pruned;
*crown develops unevenly,
*Branches break due to excess yield,
*small and unproductive fruit is formed,
* As a result of frequent branching, the branches in the interior do not receive light,
* yield decreases in a short time,
* Periodicity (product exists for a year and not for a year) is seen.
*The number and distribution of the main branches on the trunk are arranged so that the fruit trees form a solid, regular and balanced crown.
* Helps fruit trees to yield as soon as possible.
* It is ensured that the tree makes good use of sunlight.
*With pruning, fruit size, fruit quality and fruit skin coloration increase.
*The size of the tree and the frequency of the branches can be directly controlled.
* It can increase the effectiveness of spraying spraying.
* Diseased and dry branches are taken to help fight.
* Necessary gaps are created for tools and equipment to work.
* Trees that have fallen out of yield are rejuvenated by pruning and they are transformed into productive trees again.
*The situation in which some fruit species do not produce more or less in one year or no product in one year will be reduced.
* Harvesting is easier.


The pruning of fruit trees depends on the type and variety of fruit, the age of the trees, soil and climatic conditions, the expected purpose of pruning and the growth power of the tree. For this reason, the growth power of each fruit species and variety in different climatic and soil conditions and their reactions to pruning should be well known. In addition, it is imperative to know the general rules about cutting branches, choosing the branches to be left and cut well. Some rules are listed below:

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Pruning time affects the collective growth of the fruit tree, its response to cutting, its yield, physiological and economic life. Pruning is done in two separate and opposite seasons, winter and summer (green).
Winter pruning time, the time after the fruit trees have entered winter rest in warm winter places, is the most suitable time for pruning. However, pruning is not correct before severe frosts with severe winters. is the period between the start of the developmental period
Summer pruning is all the processes of diluting shoots, tipping, bending, bending, widening or narrowing the angles of branches in fruit trees throughout the summer. The purpose of summer pruning is to provide better coloration of fruits, to reduce pruning in winter and to facilitate harvesting and cultural operations. Summer pruning It is an important technical process that must be done especially during the shaping years of fruit trees. In fruit trees, summer pruning can be done at the end of the spring development period and after the shoots begin to lignify in the summer development period.


SHAPE PRINTING (DRINING): The shape to be given to the crown, which is the above-ground organ of fruit trees, changes according to the ecological conditions and the morphological structure of the tree. Today, the most common shape in the world and in our country is the 'Central Leader Training System'. This training system is apple, pear, It is the most suitable shape for many fruit types such as apricot, cherry, cherry, plum, peach and walnut. We will try to explain the system suitable for walnut type here.
Central Leader Training System: It is possible to apply this type of pruning to strong or semi-dwarf growing rootstocks such as seedlings, MM111, MM106 and walnuts. The easiest training system for young apple trees and walnuts is the modified leader branch system.
Walnuts are trees that can suffer from sudden stress in the face of excessive and severe pruning and take a long time to recover. In particular, the pruning program should be started immediately after planting in imported seedlings that grow semi-erectly and bear fruit early, with high lateral branch yield, and should be continued at different times and in different ways.
The pruning to be done in walnuts is as follows;
Eye Pruning: It is ensured that the branches make a wide angle to the trunk.
Shape Trimming: Creates a balanced crown suitable for the variety.
Crop pruning: It regulates the fruit periodicity and increases the quality.
Maintenance pruning: The tree is rejuvenated by pruning diseased branches.

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Grafted walnut saplings grown in open fields generally grow like a stick without branching. It emerges as a tree that develops and has branches that make narrow angles with the trunk. Especially in the third year, besides a disproportionate and scattered growth, we encounter thicker inefficient stumps that rise from the bottom in the form of a fork, exploit all the energy of the tree and rival the trunk. This is also the case. It delays the fruit holding time of the tree as well as reduces the amount of product and the quality of fruit (empty inside, blackening, mold).In regions where early autumn frosts are effective, especially eye drops are postponed to the next year.


At the beginning of the summer months following planting, when the shoots reach 15-25 cm, shaping processes begin. A branch that grows upright near the top of the sapling is selected as the leader branch. The roof branches that will form '' are determined. 4-6 of the shoots that look in different directions at 15-20 cm intervals and 10 cm below the determined leader branch are selected as the main branch (1st floor central branches)
Other shoots and those who are close to the leader and compete with him are removed. Thus, the branches that will form the first floor are selected and a 5-6 branched hill roof is established. This type of pruning is called modified leader shape pruning. The top of the leading branch should be shot from 60-70 cm above. .The ends of the lateral branches are cut at the rate of 1/4. (If the shoots are developed to be at least 40-60 cm in length, otherwise it will be postponed to the next year) Also, the tip of the side branches should be lower than the branch chosen as the leader. It should be cut a little shorter than the branches. If necessary, the end pruning of the branches that come between the work should be postponed for one year so that the sapling does not get tired.

YEAR 3 :

A strong crown formation is needed for good fruit production, but if this situation develops in a way that does not reflect sunlight into the crown, low fruit yield and quality will occur.
The formation of fruit buds or even shoot buds in the branches remaining in the inner parts is very low. Especially in imported seedlings with high lateral branch yield, the sun-exposed crown surfaces keep fruit, while the interior parts remain empty. To begin with, thin branches that compress the inside of the crown formed in the previous year, on the branches forming the crown surface from the bottom 1/ It is pruned at the rate of 3 with the last eye downwards. Diseased branches are removed and sunlight is also allowed to enter the interior. Creating the second floor: A second floor should be created 50-60 cm above the first floor. On the leader branch left on the first floor, 3-4 branches facing different directions are selected. There should be a distance of 30-40 cm between the last branch of the first floor and the beginning branch of the second floor. The angles of the selected branches should be wide and the angle between the trunk and the branch should be between 45-60c.


It is cut at the rate of 1/3 from the ends of the main branches and, if necessary, the leader. If necessary, the side branches on the main branches are also removed. Dead branches, diseased and broken branches are pruned. Depending on the tree type, soil and climate conditions, 8-12 main branches should be present in a tree at the mature yield age. A third floor can be created as needed.
Physiological balance has been established in the trees whose shaping process has been completed. This balance must be maintained for a long time. Matters to be considered in crop pruning.
*Main branches should be handled one by one, and if there are branches that grow vertically on each other, they should be removed.
*The main or auxiliary branches that tend to bare are cut short and new branches are tried to be created in empty places.
* Some of the fruit branches, especially the old ones, are cut and discarded.
*Dry, diseased or weakened branches are removed by cutting from the bottom.
*If a large amount of fruit branches are formed on a main or auxiliary branch, thinning is done between them.
*Branch bending and bending should not be included in yield pruning, branches should only be used as ties.
*Branches whose angles are enlarged by bending due to the weight of the fruit are tied to other branches and brought back to their original state.


Rejuvenation pruning is called rejuvenation pruning to form a new crown by forming strong shoots again in old trees that have fallen out of yield. In rejuvenation pruning, firstly dried, dense and overlapping branches are removed. By making short pruning on the remaining branches, the crown of the tree is reduced and strong shoot formation is ensured again. Many voracious branches and strong shoots are formed on the main branches and trunks of the rejuvenated trees. Of these, only those necessary for the formation of the new crown are left, the others are completely removed.
Pruner should pay attention to the following issues during pruning;
*The shape of the pruning and the amount of branch cutting,
* The growth power of the tree,
*The amount of fruit taken from the tree a year ago,
*The amount of flower buds on fruit branches,
*Other factors that may affect pruning…
What should be done after pruning?
Pruning residues at the end of pruning and dry plant parts on the garden edges are the best shelter for diseases and pests. These residues should be burned or removed from the garden so that these diseases and pests that damage fruit trees and their products do not multiply. At the end of the pruning, it is obligatory to make winter spraying on fruit trees.